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Argument Vs. Argument : Argument

- At the heart of philosophy is philosophical argument. Arguments are different from assertions. Assertions are simply stated; arguments always involve giving reasons. An argument is a reasoned inference from one set of claims – the premises – to another claim – the conclusion. The premises provide reasons to believe that the conclusion is true. If the premises are true, the conclusion is more likely to be true. Arguments seek to ‘preserve truth’ – true premises will lead to a true conclusion. It is worth knowing a little bit more about arguments straightaway....   [tags: Logic, Inductive reasoning, Argument]

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The Argument Of An Argument

- ... One must also be able to conduct a counter-argument quickly that contradicts the opponent and advances the point. To make an effective argument, the topic and positions need to be implicit. To maintain a direct focus, the reason should be logical and have a purposeful meaning with beneficial progression. Without clear frustration, express the view and the original reason by giving simple evidence. Take for instance a high-school professor confronts a complaint a student of his has about how the information being presented in the class useless to learn and know for the future....   [tags: Critical thinking, Logic, Argument, Psychology]

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The Argument For The Ontological Argument

- For many, the idea of existence as a predicate causes issues for the ontological argument. In the argument Anselm states that God is a being, than which nothing greater can be conceived, and using logic he comes to the conclusion that God must exist by definition. This can be seen as strength to the argument as if it is a valid deduction it proves God’s existence to an atheist as well as a believer. However, Kant counters this argument by saying that existence could not be a predicate of anything....   [tags: Ontology, Ontological argument, Existence]

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St. Anselm 's Argument On The Ontological Argument

- Student #: 1001725779 TA: Michel S. Tutorial: 10am St. Anselm discovers the ontological argument and he presents an argument that supports Gods existence. In this essay, I will consider the main argument that Anselm states, and list explanations that results in the uncertainty of God’s existence. This essay will critique Anslems argument by using Gaunilo idea of the perfect island and include a priori and a posteriori to show the problematic areas of Anslems argument. We begin with the explanation of Anslems argument....   [tags: Existence, Ontology, Cosmological argument]

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The Ontological Argument By St. Anselm And The Cosmological Argument

- ... However, the Cosmological Argument derives the answer from the perspective of what created the universe. The primary question that the Cosmological Argument is trying to answer is what is the uncaused first cause of the universe, or what began the world. The Cosmological Argument has based the belief that the creation of everything in the universe is contingent upon something else, and it is an infinite cycle until the uncaused first cause. Anselm develops the Ontological Argument from a much different perspective than how Aquinas developed the Cosmological Argument....   [tags: Ontology, Existence, Cosmological argument]

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An Atheist Article, The Cosmological Argument, And The Teleological Argument

- In H. J. McCloskey’s On Being an Atheist article, he argues against two philological design arguments: the cosmological argument, and the teleological argument. He also discusses his views on theists’ faith, the existence of evil, and free will. McCloskey states in his article that theists’ views on atheists are wrong. This statement I found out was true after reading his entire article. My previous view was that atheists did not care about following rules or being moral. I also believed that they are bad people....   [tags: God, Theology, Teleological argument]

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Argument And Validity Of Validity And Soundness

- Paper Topic 3 For this paper I will break down the following argument in terms of validity and soundness: If an argument has a true conclusion, then it is both valid and sound. If an argument is sound, then it is valid. An argument will have a true conclusion if it is sound. An argument has a false conclusion only if it is valid. If an argument has a false conclusion, then it is invalid. An argument is both valid and invalid. Therefore, an argument is sound if and only if it is sound. I have prepared a dictionary to more clearly distinguish the different premises....   [tags: Logic, Argument, Validity, Soundness]

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An Argument for the Smoking Ban

- Have you ever been in a restaurant eating your favorite food, then just when you are about to take a bite, you inhale a cloud of smoke coming from the nearby smoking section. This has been a complaint from many non-smoking restaurant goers. While it is true that smoking cigarettes and breathing them in causes many health problems, is it fair to of take the freedom those Americans who want to smoke and enjoy their meal. This topic is very debatable and in many cases has reached compromises, but I would stand by the argument that smoking should be banned from all public areas because the unfiltered smoke is getting into the lungs of bystanders who do not smoke, and causing some major...   [tags: argumentative, persuasive, argument]

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Logical Fallacies Of An Argument

- Logical Fallacies of an Argument Logical fallacies are the most common argument a writer may encounter to attack the opposition intelligence and its understanding. Logical fallacies can be argued on internet and off internet. A logical fallacy can be defined as a type of argument that has a good reason, but is recognized as bad. Sometimes, finding logical fallacy in an argument does not mean it is untrue. Logical fallacy can be formal and informal. Formal fallacy is an invalid argument because people can persuade by the conclusion....   [tags: Fallacy, Argument, Logical fallacies]

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Argument Against Abortion And Abortion

- In this paper I will be arguing in favor of Judith Jarvis Thomson view point on abortion. I am defending the use abortion and only in the first trimester. I will consider Don Marquis objections of the practice but ultimately side with Thomson. The standard argument against abortion claims that the fetus is a person and therefore has a right to life. Thomson shows why this standard argument against abortion is a somewhat inadequate account of the morality of abortion. (1) The fetus is a person (or moral equivalent) (2) It is wrong to kill persons (C) It is wrong to have an abortion....   [tags: Abortion, Morality, Pregnancy, Argument]

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The Ontological Argument Of Anselm

- ... “Therefore, Lord, who grant understanding to faith, grant me that, in so far as you know it beneficial, I understand that you are as we believe and you are that which we believe. Now we believe that you are something than which nothing greater can be imagined (Anselm).” In this part of his argument, Anselm is stating that a person’s beliefs are stronger than people could ever know. Anselm argued that if one must believe in God, who is a person that greater than we can ever imagine. In this part of his argument, he begins that God is more powerful that anyone can imagine....   [tags: Ontology, Existence, Ontological argument]

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An Ethical Argument Against Abortion

- Each day throughout our world, medical professionals suction thousands of babies from their mothers’ wombs through a procedure called abortion. The law protects and provides consent to both the mother and the medical professionals for these procedures. However, the babies seemingly have no right to protection or life themselves because of the argument regarding when a fetus is determined be human and have life. Pro-life author, Sarah Terzo, in a LifeSiteNews.com article, relays the following testimony supporting this from a medical student upon witnessing his first abortion, “Rejected by their mothers and regarded as medical waste by their killers, society allows these babies to die silently...   [tags: Argument Against Abortion]

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Aristotle's Argument of the Polis

- In what follows, I shall consider Aristotle's’ argument of the polis, or the city-state, as presented in his Politics I.2, and expound on the philosophical implications of this particular thesis; namely, a thesis which claims that the city-state exists by nature, and correspondingly, that a human being is ‘by nature a political animal’. Along the way, I shall present two objections leveled against each claim. The first pertains to the invalidity of the argument on ends; specifically, I shall protest that when a thing’s process of coming to be is completed, even if we regard this as an end, this does not necessarily confer that such an end is a natural end, for artificial processes too, like...   [tags: argument analysis, philosophy]

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The Ontological Argument For The Existence Of God

- One of the most intriguing and admittedly baffling arguments for the existence of God is the ontological argument. It was developed by St Anselm in the 11th century, and the reason said argument is considered unique is because it is an a priori argument rather than an a posteriori argument , which most other arguments for the existence of God tend to take form. It attempts to prove the existence of God, not through any physical evidence, but rather by claiming that the very definition of God is proof enough of his existence; that he is an underlying truth in much the same way mathematical truths are inherently known....   [tags: Ontology, Ontological argument, Existence, God]

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Exploring the Ontological Argument

- Exploring the Ontological Argument For nearly a thousand years, the ontological argument has captured the attention of philosophers. The ontological argument was revolutionary in its sequence from thought to reality. It was an argument that did not require any corresponding experiment in reality; it functioned without the necessity of empirical data. Despite flaws and problems found in some ontological arguments and the objections raised to those arguments, ontological arguments still provide a phenomenal vehicle for ontological discussion through St....   [tags: phylosophy, Anselm's argument]

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Descartes ' Argument On Substance Dualism

- ... This argument, which argues for the belief that substance dualism is in fact true, is called the mind-body separation argument. This argument revolves around the following train of thought: (a) Due to the assumption that the mind is an immaterial thing simply by the nature of the mind, we can safely assume that the mind is an indivisible thing, (b) Due to the assumption about the physical nature of the body, we can safely assume that the body is a divisible thing, and therefore, (c) the mind and the body must be separate entities....   [tags: Philosophy of mind, Mind, Consciousness, Argument]

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The Ontological Argument Of God 's Existence

- ... Anselm’s argument he starts by stating the concept of a “being than which no greater can be conceived”. This statement is one of the strategies Anselm uses to defend the existence of God. St. Anselm has confidence that if individuals understand the terminology of God and existence and also can understand what it means to speak of him, they must then come to the conclusion that he is of existence (Halsall, par. 14). This statement then leads everyone to believe that God definitely exists in our understanding as well as the atheist mind....   [tags: Ontology, Ontological argument, Existence]

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The History of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God

- Early elements of the Cosmological Argument were developed by the world renowned philosophers Plato and Aristotle between the years 400 and 200 BC (Boeree). Medieval philosopher Saint Thomas Aquinas expanded upon their ideas in the late 13th Century when he wrote, “The Five Ways.” Since then the Cosmological Argument has become one of the most widely accepted and criticized arguments for the existence of God. My objective in this paper is to explain why the Cosmological Argument is a reasonable argument for the existence of God, the importance of understanding that it is an inductive a posteriori argument, and defend my position against common opposing arguments....   [tags: Cosmological Argument, religion]

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The Argument from Design, by William Paley

- During the 1800th century, William Paley, an English philosopher of religion and ethics, wrote the essay The Argument from Design. In The Argument from Design, Paley tries to prove the existence of a supreme being through the development of a special kind of argument known as the teleological argument. The teleological argument is argument by analogy, an argument based on the similarities between two different subjects. This essay purposefully attempts to break down Paley’s argument and does so in the following manner: firstly, Paley’s basis for the teleological argument is introduced; secondly, Paley’s argument is derived and analyzed; thirdly, the connection between Paley’s argument and th...   [tags: Teleological Argument, Supreme Being]

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Employee Loyalty Argument By Ronald Duska

- For this essay, I will evaluate the Employee Loyalty Argument derived from ‘Whistleblowing and Employee Loyalty’ by Ronald Duska. I will argue that this Employee Loyalty Argument is deductively valid but is not deductively sound because premise 2 is false. I will justify my claims that premise 2 is false by arguing about how it is rational for employees to expect their companies to recognize and fulfill a duty of loyalty to their employees if the employees also have a duty of loyalty to the companies that employ them....   [tags: Argument, Logic, Validity, Employment]

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Thomas Aquinas ' Uncaused Cause Argument

- Thomas Aquinas’ “Uncaused Cause” argument starts with a premise stating the world has events which cause other events to happen. Because of this series of causes, nothing can exist before itself or else the chain of causes would go in a circle. For example, “if a tree caused a seed which caused an apple which caused event x to cause event y which eventually causes the seed to cause the apple, ultimately the apple would have caused itself to exist since it existed before it existed” (“Uncaused Cause” Atkins, Philip)....   [tags: Logic, Argument, A priori and a posteriori]

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Anselm's Ontological Argument

- In Chapter 2 of Anselm's Proslogian, Anselm offers what was later to be characterized as his Ontological Argument, which is an argument for God's existence he felt was so strong that even a fool as is said in Psalms 14:1- "who has said in his heart, 'There is no God'". Anselm's argument is as follows : 1. God is 'that which nothing greater can be conceived'. 2. If someone understands a thing, than that thing exists in someone's understanding. 3. If someone understands 'that which nothing greater can be conceived', then 'that which nothing greater can be conceived' exists in someone's understanding....   [tags: plantiga's argument, god]

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Conceptual Clarification : A Sound Deductive Argument

- ... Since I need to earn money to pay for rent and food, I am considering taking one of two paths: Work a traditional profession such as waitressing. Focus on school and babysit on the side. The concept which I am debating over is ‘work’. This concept is significant in that it affects both my use of resources, and later on down the road, it has the potential to affect further career opportunities. Following the concept analysis method, the first step that should be taken is to define ‘work’. According to Webster’s Dictionary, work is “a job or activity that you do regularly especially to earn money.” (“Work”) For the purposes of this discussion, however, I would like to re-define this as, “...   [tags: Logic, Argument, Inductive reasoning, Reasoning]

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The Ontological Argument As A Proof For The Existence Of God

- Explain the reasoning of the Ontological argument as a proof for the existence of God. Ontological arguments, by their nature attempt to prove the existence of God using deductive reasoning to a point of logical necessity. Constructed as an a priori proof Anselm’s ontological argument works from a position of faith in an attempt to strengthen his belief in the existence of God. Anselm asks the question, ‘can what I know about God, be thought of as correct?’ However, the argument does, in some forms, attempt to prove the existence of God reductio ad absurdum....   [tags: Ontology, Ontological argument, Logic, God]

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The Argument for Celibacy

- The Argument for Celibacy   How could someone explain America’s loosening view of sexual intercourse over recent decades. Have our moral standards changed so much that they now accept or even encourage frequent sex. Is it just a method of rebellion as people attempt to fight conservative societal views. Perhaps we just wish to fight those who instill inhibitive ideas on us, and our forms of freedom – in this case, that of our bodies. Has American media’s desire for revenue and profit caused an increased sway towards what was previously deemed inappropriate....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays]

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Against The Golden Rule Argument Against Abortion

- Golden Rule and Abortion In his essay “Against the Golden Rule Argument Against Abortion,” David Boonin-Vail argues against R. M. Hare and Harry J. Gensler. He states both versions of the golden rule should be rejected. The golden rule is a biblical rule of “do unto others as you would have them do unto you” (Matt. 7:12). Boonin-Vail maintains that both Hare’s and Gensler’s interpretations are not adequate enough in stating that the golden rule shows abortion to be immoral for various reasons. I will not be arguing that the golden rule argument is sound....   [tags: Logic, Argument, Pregnancy]

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The Teleological Argument : The Logic Of Science And Man Of God

- For a long time in history there was a divide between a man of science and man of God. There have been times when scientific discoveries were discounted as they were considered being contrary to what the Bible teaches. Today, there are many scientists who discount Christianity on account of it being opposed to science. However, both scientists and Christians – though they do not really belong in a dichotomy – are interested in studying the world around us to get to know more about it. They just have different interpretations on where the information we get will lead us....   [tags: Universe, Nature, Teleological argument]

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The Existence Of God And His Powers Through The Ontological Argument

- ... (Anselm 73) This lack of power that Anselm is describing shows how God making decisions or creating items that are above his power go against God himself and the creation of a self-contradictory item actually takes away from his omnipotence, and therefore is impossible. Mavrodes argues that the rock has nothing to do with God’s supposed omnipotence because the rock is a self-contradictory statement. This means that because God is omnipotent the rock is impossible to create and it’s “failure to exist cannot be the result of some lack in the power of God” (Mavrodes 118)....   [tags: God, Omnipotence, Ontological argument]

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Using Crisis as a Tool for Argument

- 1) A synopsis of the argument crisis What are we going to do. It is a main topic of the chapter. The book shows us a few essays to relate to crisis. That is about the nature of crisis or college education or the relationship between two countries. They introduced to us why we have to use crisis for the argument, because it is one way to learn how to develop argument. When we get in the crisis situation, we can illustrate many different sides, and one of them will be most persuasive argument leads the direction of the argument....   [tags: Persuasion Argument]

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Anselm 's Ontological Argument For The Existence Of God

- In this paper I will argue that Anselm 's ontological argument for the existence of God is so adequate for establishing the necessary existence of the greatest Conceivable Being. In order to accomplish this, I will argue that Anselm 's premises are sound, and that his conclusion rightfully follows his premises. I will support Anselm 's argument by representing that objections to Anselm 's argument are unsuccessful. My focus will be on Gaunilo 's objection to Anselm 's argument. Basically, Gauinilo 's objection is that Anselm 's argument can be transformed to prove the existence of any idea just by using the definition that the concept is bigger than all different concepts which can be concei...   [tags: Ontology, Ontological argument, Existence, Mind]

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Moral Argument for Existence of God

- All moral arguments for the existence of God work on the principle that we all have a shared sense of morality. Despite cultural differences, broadly speaking, humans worldwide have a vague idea of what is right and what is wrong; a moral argument for the existence of God would say that this mutual understanding is proof of God's existence. Immanuel Kant put forward this argument (although, not a moral argument); God as the source of objective morality. Firstly, he addressed the categorical imperative; our own sense of duty, and that being moral was case of following this principle, for example, paying your debts....   [tags: Religion Argument Analysis]

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Marijuana Use - A Persuasive Argument

- Richard Lowry has been the editor of National Review since 1997. He joined the magazine’s staff in 1992 after graduating from the University of Virginia, where he edited a conservative monthly magazine called the Virginia Advocate. In 1994, he moved to Washington, D.C. to cover Congress. At 33, Rich Lowry is not what most people expect of the editor of the National Review. Lowry is constantly taking readers by surprise, presenting them with his humor, his depth of knowledge and his enthusiasm....   [tags: Argument Analysis Legal Marijuana]

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Argument Analysis - Declaration of Independence

- Argument Analysis - Declaration of Independence In May of 1776 a resolution was passed at the Virginia Convention in Williamsburg that asked the thirteen American colonies to declare the United Colonies free and independent from the British crown. At the second continental congress the resolution passed and on June 11, 1776 a five-man committee led by Thomas Jefferson was established to write the Declaration of Independence. On July 4, 1776 the members of the second continental congress signed into existence one of the most influential documents in history....   [tags: Argument Analysis Declaration of Independence]

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Behind Mackie's Argument For Atheism

- Mackie in his paper Evil and Omnipotence, constructs an argument against the idea of the possibility of a God existing that has the characteristics laid out by the main religions: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. These characteristics include that God is omnipotent, or He is capable of stopping evil, and omni benevolent, or He wants to eliminate evil and He is entirely good. Mackie systematically goes through his logical thought process as well as his response to any type of criticism or alternative solution that might arise....   [tags: Atheism Religion Argument]

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The Basic Argument Is Sound And Society 's Definitions Of Being Morally Responsible

- ... For instance, if we break the law, we have not only committed an illegal act but, in the eyes of society, an immoral one, too. Since there is a logical progression from the first to the second premise (and the second to the third), I will focus on justifying why Strawson is valid in saying that humans behave the way they do because of the way they are. A common objection to this first premise is pointing out examples where people behave in a completely different manner than the way they supposedly are....   [tags: Human, Morality, Religion, Argument]

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The Cosmological Argument is Self-contradictory

- The Cosmological Argument, also known as the First Cause Argument, is one of the most important arguments for the existence of God, not only because it is one of the more convincing, but also because it is one of the most used. The thought that everything that happens must have a cause and that the first cause of everything must have been God, is widespread. The cosmological argument is the argument from the existence of the world or universe to the existence of a being that brought it into and keeps it in existence....   [tags: Philosophy Religion First Cause Argument]

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Craig's Argument for the Existence of God

- Craig/Kalam’s Cosmological Argument One of the most argued topics throughout human history is whether or not God exists. It is argued frequently because there are several different reasonings and sub arguments in this main argument. People who believe God exists argue how God acts and whether there is one or several. People who do not believe God exists argue how the universe became into existence or if it has just always existed. In this paper, I will describe Craig's argument for the existence of God and defend Craig's argument....   [tags: cosmological arguments]

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The Cosmological Argument and the Mystical Argument

- The controversial topic involving the existence of God has been the pinnacle of endless discourse surrounding the concept of religion in the field of philosophy. However, two arguments proclaim themselves to be the “better” way of justifying the existence of God: The Cosmological Argument and the Mystical Argument. While both arguments attempt to enforce strict modus operandi of solidified reasoning, neither prove to be a better way of explaining the existence of God. The downfall of both these arguments rests on commitment of fallacies and lack of sufficient evidence, as a result sabotaging their validity in the field of philosophy and faith....   [tags: Existence of God]

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The Argument from Design by William Paley

- William Paley’s, The Argument from Design, talks a great deal about a being coming across a watch and questioning why the watch was there and how the watch was created there. He stated that there must have been a creator to the watch. Everything that has a design has a creator and that how nobody had ever seen the creator at work as he crafts this piece of art altogether to the point of where everything is put in place and has a purpose, that if even one thing was out of place that the watch would not tick, or for that matter, never work at all....   [tags: teleological arguments]

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The Argument : The Ontological Argument

- ... It argues that because God is defined as a being who possess every perfection, and assuming that it is better to exist than not to exist, it would follow that this perfect being would exist. When I first heard this I asked myself, but why would he need to exist. The argument is set up as a good definition for God, but not as proof. That is the major fault with the argument because if he lacked existence, then he wouldn 't be perfect. If we question God 's existence more we find that the word "existence" does not signify any attribute....   [tags: God, Existence, Ontology, Existence of God]

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Argument Against Euthanasia

- Euthanasia is a Greek word which means, gentle and easy death. However, it is the other way around. It is not a gentle or easy death because there is not a type of death which can called gentle in the world. According to Ian Dowbiggin, in Ancient Greece people used euthanasia without patient's permission. It means that, in Ancient Greece they did not care about the voluntariness. Also, there are just few doctors who adjust themselves according to the Hippocratic Oath. (250 pp.) After coming of Christianity, church learnt how evil suicide was and they told people killing another person or themselves was a brutal behavior....   [tags: Argument Against Assisted Suicide]

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Ernst Mayr's One Long Argument - Creationism vs. Evolutionism

- Ernst Mayr's One Long Argument - Creationism vs. Evolutionism Challenging the accepted order of society always brings a wave of criticism and contempt. In Ernst Mayr's One Long Argument, he aggressively brings to the forefront of debate the notion that his predecessors had heatedly argued for years, that man is not a divinely created creature, but rather just another animal in a state of constant change. Examining the path Charles Darwin, had followed in his attempt to better understand the evolutionary path of man, noted biologist Ernst Mayr explains Darwinian theory in respects to not only evolution but also in respect to the belief that man is somehow a creature made of a higher d...   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays]

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Epicurus 's Argument On The Death Argument

- Epicurus’s Death argument is very simple, and thus can be hard to refute. The basic premise is that is that no one feels any pain while they are dead, thus being dead is not a painful experience, so being dead is not bad for the one who is dead. My goal for this paper is to prove how those premises fails. In section 1 I will explain in greater detail Epicurus’s argument, in section 2 I will attack those arguments citing various theoretical examples, and in section 3 I will defend my attacks against potential rebuttals....   [tags: Suffering, Pain, Philosophical terminology]

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The Argument Of Free Will

- ... Annie had the choice to choose from the salad and fattening snack but still ended up in the same place. She could have even rejected both snacks and could still have ended up with having a future president child. The higher being would factor in as the person who presented her with the choice. And it all connects. Thomas Nagel describes it best when he says “…all combine to make a particular action in the circumstance inevitable.” The idea that the choice was already chosen even before you were born, like Annie choosing the fattening food, is called Determinism....   [tags: Free will, Choice, Destiny, Determinism]

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Argument in an Essay

- Argument can be defined as claim or thesis statement. The aim of an argument is to convince audience. It is essential to make sound argument so that audience could engage in and align with the author’s view. Therefore, one of the key elements could be identified as the awareness of audience. Another key element is evidence. In order to persuade audience, argument should be consolidated through evidence and authority. The credibility of author and argument could be enhanced by means of using evidence and referring to authorities....   [tags: Education, College, Thesis]

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The No Selves Argument

- Thomas Nagel, in “Brain Bisection and the unity of consciousness,” presents a thesis for the nonexistence of selves in human beings. Selves, in the case of Nagel’s argument, are the physiological bases of mind that constitute the subject of experience. A self may be thought of as the fundamental person, or the “Personal Identity”. There has been substantial difficulty in identifying the number of persons present in a human being, and the initial and seemingly apparent answer of “one” becomes less convincing upon inspection of further evidence....   [tags: Neurology]

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An Argument for Conservatism

- Neoconservatism is a variant of the conservative ideology which holds positions that fall between traditional and individualistic conservatism (Ball and Dagger, 2011b, p. 113). Many of the ideas and beliefs that neoconservatives hold, which continue to evolve today, were developed in the 1970s by “disillusioned liberal intellectuals” as a result of the tumultuous societal conditions that were occurring in the United States at the time (Ball and Dagger, 2011a, p. 170). To elaborate more fully, author Irving Kristol, the man known as the godfather of neoconservatives, says, “Many neoconservatives can be described as disenchanted welfare liberals....   [tags: neoconservatism, conservative ideology]

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Annotated Argument-The Belle Curve

- Table of Contents The Bell Curve Chapter 1 – “Cognitive Class and Education, 1900-1990 1) It is not just the case that more people are going to college, but that the brighter students are the ones attending. 2) Admission became more related to I.Q. than in the past. 3) There is a small part of the population that are expected to fill positions of power, yet they cannot relate to the majority of the population. Chapter 2 – “Cognitive Partitioning By Occupation 1) The correlation between I.Q....   [tags: Annotated Argument]

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An Argument Against Gun Control

- Should the mere fact that criminals committing crimes with the use of guns infringe the national right of the innocent to possess guns. This is a question that arouses everywhere and no matter which way it is viewed the controversy will always go on. "A gun is a mere tool that can be used for good or evil. Our country is based on the belief that man is good until he or she is proven to be otherwise."(Harris p.2) This means that only a few people are committing crimes with uses of guns and why completely remove them from society....   [tags: Argument Against Gun Control]

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The Teleological Argument

- William Paley and David Hume’s argument over God’s existence is known as the teleological argument, or the argument from design. Arguments from design are arguments concerning God or some type of creator’s existence based on the ideas of order or purpose in universe. Hume takes on the approach of arguing against the argument of design, while Paley argues for it. Although Hume and Paley both provide very strong arguments, a conclusion will be drawn at the end to distinguish which philosophiser holds a stronger position....   [tags: Philosophy/Religion]

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The Bachelor's Argument

- Dan Moller defends the argument he calls “the bachelor’s argument,” which is an “argument against marriage.” By pointing out how not everyone that gets married isn’t guaranteed a happy and successful out come, such as a happy and loving marriage. If we were follow through with the bachelor’s argument as if it was set standard set in stone, not giving marriage a chance could possibly lead to the lose of one finding true because they never got a chance to marry the person they thought they’d love and could have lasting relationship....   [tags: Relationships]

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An Arrogant Argument

- One of the most destructive and arrogant persons in history was Adolf Hitler. The destruction that he and his regime brought on humanity has seldom seen its equal. In reality the Holocaust was a terrible horror, but in Hitler’s mind it was merely a brushstroke in the masterpiece that he believed he was creating. Hitler believed that the Aryan race was superior to all others and that it was only natural, and not cruel, that the higher would show no humanity toward the lower (296). This prejudiced belief predominated Hitler’s thinking....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]

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Argument of Power

- In this paper I am addressing the following question; are conditional accounts of forgiveness true. Conditional forgiveness is when the victim does not forgive the wrongdoer until he/she repents or comes forth with some type of merciful act. “Conditional accounts traditionally make the appropriateness of forgiveness conditional on the severity of the offense and the attitudes and behavior of the offender.” (Wolfendale, 344) Conditional account, waiting to forgive until the wrongdoer repents, leaves the power in the hands of the wrongdoer....   [tags: Case Study]

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Clarifying an Argument

- Clarifying an Argument Sherry Turkle, a professor at MIT, current director of the MIT initiative on Technology and Self, in her 2007 “Can You Hear Me Now?” for Forbes Magazine, she addresses the topic of technology and discusses society’s growing attachment and alienation caused by it. Turkle wrote the article for an educated, older and business interested audience, there are references and terms that need clarification for most people. She discusses the Blackberry throughout the article, which is not concretely defined....   [tags: Article Analysis, Technology Effects]

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Argument for Euthanasia

- Argument for Euthanasia You were in a tragic car accident on your way to work. You have been in coma for years. Your family is not only devastated because of your state, they are also having a hard time trying to pay off all of your expenses. You were not insured, and your family is forced to keep paying the bills needed to keep you “alive”. Your family is going completely bankrupt and you still show no sign of getting better. Your family wants to pull the plug, but doing so would be illegal in the United States; so the doctor doesn’t permit this....   [tags: Healthcare System, Patient Rights]

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The Arguments Against The Arguing Atheism Argument

- The Arguments Against the Arguing Atheism Argument If this was an essay on English grammar, alliteration would be the culpable culprit. The empiricist’s notions of ‘knowledge’ --i.e. what can be known and how—and by whom, or rather, from what perspective/view/vantage— veer away from metaphorical language as aversions either from logic or rational observation within space and time; any argument based outside the data is therefore absent relevant meaning. It would seem that many atheistic notions prevalent in general western industrialized societies, while rarely comprising any orthodox, organized or consistent set of rules, are nonetheless increasingly pervading the culture, and in some r...   [tags: Atheism, God, Human, Theism]

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Fallacies And The Weak Arguments By Learning

- Fallacies reference to the weak arguments by learning or hearing some different terms could be an error. It is crucial to understand the concept of the logical fallacies, without understating the point of the arguments the arguments might turn to be weak instant of being persuasive. In order to attempting someone we need first to identify the problem and avoid the confusion. Most of the common argument are not strong and feeble to be the point. Sometimes the Fallacies argument can be persuasive at least to the casual reader or the listener....   [tags: Fallacy, Argument, Critical thinking]

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The Layouts Of Arguments By Toulmin

- Chapter three, “The Layouts of Arguments,” of Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument described a model that can be applied to an argumentative piece of text. The purpose of the model is to assist in analyzing a piece of text. The model consists of data, claim, warrants, qualifiers, rebuttals, and backing. Toulmin starts by creating a simile between an argument and organism stating that they are both wholes created through small details. Arguments must be analyzed to determine whether it is valid of invalid, and by following a certain form they can be more credible....   [tags: Logic, Argument, Premise, Fallacy]

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The Argument of Sociology is Based on Relationships

- Creating a good argument, this is an argument which will persuade the opposing side into accepting that the claim which was made, as well as the grounds of the claim, is different for each social science. It is usual for individuals to pull from their personal experiences, their views, morals, and interpretation of things when formulating an argument. The same goes for the various social sciences. Each social science approaches an argument in a different manner, and gives different aspects of an argument a higher regard....   [tags: Sociology Essays]

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The Argument For The Existence Of God

- The argument for the existence of God contains moral arguments that form a family of diverse facts and opinions. There are many arguments disproving His existence. And there are many arguments proving them wrong. Both are quite interesting for the fact that they both contain concrete proof that required attention to essentially all important philosophical issues dealing with metaethics and they’re important because of their prominence in popular arguments for religious belief. Most ordinary people feel as though religion is providing a foundation for morality; however, if someone believes that morality is objective or requires an explanation of some sort, then the moral argument of God’s exi...   [tags: Existence, Ontology, Theology]

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The Ontological Argument For The Existence Of God

- ... However, this does not prove that God exists, for example, if I imagine a unicorn, this proves the mental existence of unicorns, however it does no such thing for the physical existence. Therefore, Descartes premise may be true, but it fails to be specific enough to make a convincing case. Whereas Aquinas finds fault in how specific the ontological argument is, Kant undermines the basis of Descartes thesis. Kant claims that “existence does not function as a predicate” which diminishes Descartes point that to be perfect, something must exist....   [tags: Ontology, Existence, Metaphysics, Logic]

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Argument Essay : ' The Wrongfulness Of Euthanasia '

- Argument Against Euthanasia The argument that J. Gay-Williams provides in his article, “The Wrongfulness of Euthanasia” has many strengths, is well written, and easy to understand. The main strength in his argument comes from his section “The Argument From Nature,” where he states that “It is possible, but not necessary to make an appeal to revealed religion in this connection.” (Gay-Williams 3) This point states that he could bring religion into his argument but, for the sake of time and shortness of writing, he leaves religion out of his argument....   [tags: Death, Euthanasia, Medical ethics, Religion]

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Descartes ' Argument For The Existence Of God

- Descartes’ Argument for the Existence of God In Descartes’ second meditation, he offers up an argument for Defective Nature Doubt that brings forth the idea that we can’t be certain of anything we perceive being actual and real (153). Descartes thinks that there is a possibility that we are constantly being deceived due to the fact that we don’t know, with perfect certainty, know where our ideas originate from (154). He tries to describe a method in order to dispel this Defective Nature Doubt by giving an argument for the existence of God....   [tags: Mind, Thought, Human, Existence]

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The Invalidity of the Cosmological Argument

- ... These ways have started philosophers to debate and question his arguments ultimately made the cosmological argument debatable. The cosmological argument is however not a valid argument in explaining the existence of god because the conclusions do not logically follow the premises. The main point in the cosmological argument is the first cause. As stated (by Aquinas) the world cannot be infinite and must have an initial cause, known as god. This was Aquinas’ second way, efficient causes. Aquinas’s used physical observations on Earth to come up with his theory, nothing can being itself into existence....   [tags: god, universe, fallacy]

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The Argument For Skepticism About Induction

- In this paper I will review the argument for skepticism about induction, specifically Dr. Jackson’s reconstruction of David Hume’s work. Reasoning inductively is defined as reasoning based on what one has experienced or observed to occur in the past, and then taking these past events to try to reason what will occur in the future. I will break down and explain the argument given as how I see and understand it. I will discuss how Hume draws his argument and moves from his premises to his lemmas, and ultimately his conclusion, in Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding....   [tags: Logic, Inductive reasoning, Reasoning, Philosophy]

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The Argument For The Existence Of God

- St. Thomas Aquinas presents five arguments to demonstrate the existence of God. However, this paper focuses on the fifth argument. The fifth argument is regarded as the Teleological Argument and states that things that lack intelligence act for some end or purpose. While the fifth argument satisfies God’s existence for Aquinas, some contemporary readers would argue that Aquinas neglects the laws of physics. Others argue that Aquinas allows a loophole in his argument so that the Catholic conception of God is not the only intelligent designer....   [tags: Soul, Metaphysics, Aristotle, Logic]

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Working For The Success And The Completion Of The Argument

- While our first assignment was a group argument, the process was difficult at first, however, afterwards it was proved to me that it was more easy that what I had imaged it to be. Working in groups help in the development of my communication skills, however, I observed that I had many things to learn and the communication between my partners and me was truly necessary for the success and the completion of the argument. The argument was difficult to create and write, however, due to the work effort of all my partners and all their contribution to the writing of the argument it help me understand personally that we needed to work together....   [tags: Critical thinking, Learning, Knowledge, Writing]

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The Argument Of The Theory Of Knowledge

- Berkeley the noted empiricist ended up in idealism that in fact, wanted to solve the tension in Locke 's account of knowledge, noticing that his indirect realistic position and its components causes inconsistency in this account; to remove this problem he ends up to an absolute idealism: only ideas exist. He starts his discussion, raising two arguments: The first argument in opposition to the prevalent notion that we are able to verify independent objects, existing external to us based on the Parmenidian idea that for every thought in our mind there is an object in reality that was the main challenge of ancient skeptics....   [tags: Mind, Metaphysics, George Berkeley, Perception]

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Reading Response : Argument And Analysis

- Reading Response: Argument and Analysis 1. What are the multiple purposes for arguing. What are the goals/intentions/motivations for each. In this please also make the distinction between “argument,” “persuasion” and “propaganda.” • The multiple purposes for arguing include arguments to inform, to convince, arguments to persuade, to explore, and arguments to make decisions; in addition, arguments to meditate or pray. Moreover, the overall intention of the arguments is to bring the truth by the use of evidence, which it leads to convictions....   [tags: Rhetoric, Regulatory Focus Theory, Logic]

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Abortion : An Argument For A Secular Audience

- Abortion Taking out the trash, or taking a human life. That is what most the argument is with abortion, some believe that abortion is okay because the fetus is not yet a person, and that the fetus will be nothing but trouble. On the other side people believe that even all the way down to the zygote (when sperm meets the egg and earliest stage of pregnancy) there is a human growing in you. A growing boy or girl, with their own little fingers, and toes, their own cute as can be toothless smile, and their functioning organs....   [tags: Pregnancy, Abortion, Want, Fetus]

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The 's Argument On The Personhood Of A Fetus

- “I argue that it is personhood, and not genetic humanity, which is the fundamental basis for membership in the moral community” (133). This is the central idea in Mary Anne Warren’s argument on the personhood of a fetus. She argues that in order for a genetic human being to be considered a person, he or she would have to possess all of the six criteria’s of personhood which include sentience, ability to reason and emotionality. In order to determine the viability of the personhood of a fetus she argues two things....   [tags: Morality, Ethics, Virtue ethics, Human]

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The Argument Of The Ban On Tobacco Advertising

- ... "It was found that per capital consumption of cigarettes (15 years +) had dropped between 14 and 37% after the implementation of the ban." This conclusion demonstrates factual results that support the positive effect of a ban on advertising products for tobacco. Summarize the arguments in opposition of the ban on tobacco advertising in India Part of the nays’ in banning tobacco advertising in India was a limitation to the freedom of the people. This became a very sensitive argument because of the amount of justification required for drawing a line between the freedom of choice and the law....   [tags: Tobacco advertising, Tobacco, Nicotine]

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Descartes Argument for the Existence of God

- Descartes employs what is known as an ontological argument to prove the existence of God. Saint Anselm who lived during the 11th century first formulated this type of argument. Since then it has proved popular with many philosophers including Rene` Descartes. Even though ontological arguments have lost popularity with modern philosophers there has been some recent attempts to revive them. Descartes formulation is regarded as being one of the best because it is straight forward and relatively easy to follow....   [tags: philosophy, theology]

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Argument Against The Morality Of Abortion

- Explain how it is that the notion of what it is to be a person (or a human) is relevant to evaluating certain arguments against the morality of abortion. (Given an example of such an argument.) What are some of the different views that have been proposed. Which view of the nature of persons seems most reasonable. What do you conclude from this about the morality of abortion. The two sides of the aisle when it comes to abortion are separated by a gray area of when life begins. Primarily there are two sides, pro-choice/pro-abortion or pro-life where “pro” means in favor of so it is whether they are in favor of “choice”/abortion or in favor of life....   [tags: Human, Morality, Ethics, Human rights]

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The Dream Argument By Rene Descartes

- “I know for certain that I am standing up; it is absolutely certain that I am; there is not the smallest chance that I am not.”-G.E Moore. Rene Descartes, introduced the Dream Argument, where he believed that we cannot trust our senses because at some point in an individual’s life they might be dreaming and believe that what was occurring during that dream was reality. This argument, was opposed to by G.E Moore where used evidence and knowledge to flip over the dream argument. He finds that Descartes, argument was very inconsistent....   [tags: Mind, Epistemology, Metaphysics, René Descartes]

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The Dream Argument by Rene Descartes

- One of Rene Descartes’s most famous arguments, from his not only from his first meditation but all of the meditations, is his Dream Argument. Descartes believes that there is no way to be able to distinguish being in awake from being in a state of dreaming. In fact you could actually be in a dream right now. Rene Descartes’s theory that one is unable distinguish being awake from dreaming, as interesting as it is, can be at times a little farfetched, along with a few contradictions to himself, Descartes’s dream argument does not entitle himself to any sort of claim....   [tags: Descartes Theory, Dreaming, Awake]

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1011 words | (2.9 pages) | Preview

Argument Of Moral Relativism : A Critique

- Argument from moral variability, as we discuss in our philosophy class, it is an argument to support Ethical Relativism, this argument claims that since different people have different moral standards, so there is no universal moral standard. As Stace claimed in his essay “ Ethical Relativism: A Critique”, “For the absolutist there is a single universal moral standard. For the relativist there is no such standard. There are only local, ephemeral, and variable standards.”(Stace, para 7). What Stace indicated in his argument is: people form different moral standards based on their backgrounds, circumstances, and ages, one thing treated right for this group may be treated wrong for the other g...   [tags: Morality, Moral relativism, Relativism, Truth]

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The Argument For Utilitarianism And The Virtue Theory

- Each of the theories from the second term of this class have pros and cons. I do not believe any theory is completely perfect, but there is one I felt that is superior. Between the utilitarian, the deontological, and the virtue theory; I believe the virtue theory has the most compelling arguments. The utilitarian and deontological theories have too many flaws they cannot argue against without changes to the theory itself. Aristotle’s virtue theory does not have many weaknesses that will cause it to fall flat....   [tags: Virtue, Ethics, Deontological ethics]

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An Argument for the Permissibility of Active Euthanasia

- Recently I have gone through the very difficult struggle of seeing my father come face to face with death. He was in the hospital, in a comatose state for nearly eight days. During that time, because he left me as his medical proxy, I was the one that made the decision about what course of action was to be take. It is my aim in this paper to address the question of whether or not it is ever permissible to actively aid in the death of another person. I will attempt to argue that active euthanasia can at times not only be permissible, but the correct action to take....   [tags: Assisted Suicide, Right to Die]

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Analysis Of The Article ' The Basic Argument '

- Strawson’s “The Basic Argument” claims that free will does not exist and that each and every individual cannot be held morally responsible for their actions. My interpretation after reading the persuasive essay is that this notion is correct. Before reading the excerpt from Strawson’s argument, free will was a point of mental struggle. I have often throughout my life thought of the teaching of free will I have grown up with; a religious based one. To me, the argument of free will never seemed whole....   [tags: Thought, Mind, Free will, Human]

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1103 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

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